The RAMI 4.0, Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 (Industry 4.0), was developed by the German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association (ZVEI) to support Industry 4.0 initiatives, which are gaining broad acceptance throughout the world. Industry 4.0 (also termed Industrie 4.0) is a holistic view of manufacturing enterprises, started in Germany, with many worldwide cooperative efforts including China, Japan, and India. Industry 4.0 concepts, structure, and methods are being adopted worldwide to modernize manufacturing.
RAMI 4.0 definition
The RAMI 4.0 Reference Architectural Model and the Industry 4.0 components give companies a framework for developing future products and business models. RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional map showing how to approach the deployment of Industry 4.0 in a structured manner. A major goal of RAMI 4.0 is to make sure that all participants involved in Industry 4.0 discussions and activities have a common framework to understand each other. The RAMI 4.0 framework is intended to enable standards to be identified to determine whether there is any need for additions and amendments. This model is complemented by the Industry 4.0 components. Both results are described in DIN SPEC 91345 (Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0). DIN (www.din.de) represents German interests within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Today, roughly 85 percent of all national standard projects are European or international in origin.
Putting the RAMI 4.0 model in perspective, in the glossary of the VDI/VDE-GMA 7.21 Industrie 4.0 technical committee, a reference model is defined as a model that can be generally applied and can be used to derive specific models. There are many examples of this in the field of technology. The most well known is the seven-layer ISO/OSI model, which is used as a reference model for network protocols. The advantage of using such models is a shared understanding of the function of every layer/element and the defined interfaces between the layers.
RAMI 4.0 defines a service-oriented architecture (SOA) where application components provide services to the other components through a communication protocol over a network. The basic principles of SOA are independent of vendors, products, and technologies. The goal is to break down complex processes into easy-to-grasp packages, including data privacy and information technology (IT) security.
Industry 4.0″ manufacturing system characteristics are:
- flexible systems and machines
- functions distributed throughout the network
- participants interact across hierarchy levels
- communication among all participants
- product part of the network
- RAMI 4.0 structure
Throughout the world, there is a recognition that to be competitive, manufacturing needs to modernize. The Industry 4.0 movement in particular continues to accelerate defining the pattern of how all industrial automation can achieve the goal of holistic and adaptive automation system architectures. A driving force behind the development of Industry 4.0 is the realization that pursuing low labor rates is not a winning strategy. Remaining competitive and flexible can only be accomplished by leveraging advanced technologies, centering on automation to enable a successful transition. Germany’s Industrie 4.0 initiative has ignited cooperative efforts in China, Japan, and India.
Industry 4.0 is interdisciplinary, where the standards applicable in mechanical engineering, electronics, electrical engineering, and communications and information technology need to be combined with the respective technologies needed for their implementation.
Discrete and process industries
The development of RAMI 4.0 focused on industrial production as the primary area of application, including discrete manufacturing to process industries. Industry 4.0 concepts are being applied to process industries to achieve a holistic integration of automation, business information, and manufacturing execution function to improve all aspects of production and commerce across process industry value chains for greater efficiency. The “Process Sensor 4.0 Roadmap” initiated by NAMUR and VDI/VDE, in collaboration with several prominent leaders in the industry (including ABB, BASF, Bayer Technology Services, Bilfinger Maintenance, Endress+Hauser, Evonik, Festo, Krohne, Lanxess, Siemens, and Fraunhofer ICT), reflects the intent of creating fundamental building blocks to advance process automation system architectures. A number of NAMUR working groups are part of Working Area 2 (WA 2), Automation Systems for Processes and Plants.
Related to this activity, the OPC Foundation and FieldComm Group have an initiative to create a protocol-independent, process automation device information model (PA-DIM) specification based on the industrial interoperability standard OPC UA. PROFIBUS/PROFINET International is now participating in this vision, which is supported by NAMUR as part of its Open Architecture (NOA) initiative. The goal is enabling end users to dramatically reduce time to implement advanced analytics, big data projects, and enterprise cloud solutions that rely on information from thousands of geographically dispersed field devices using multiple process automation protocols.
Source: ISA (International Society of Automation)
What are main aspects of RAMI 4.0 (in the following architectural model view) that you need to know?
First, know that the foundations of industry 4.0 and RAMI 4.0 have been developed by two documents.
The Industrie 4.0 workgroup report
In 2013, it released the so-called “Umzetsungsempfehlungen” paper. The report of the Industry 4.0 workgroup covers primarily principles and foundations, including:
- Horizontal inclusion across networks of value-added.
- Vertical integration and production systems networked/connected
- The CPPS technology (cyber-physical production systems)
- Engineering continuity across the whole value chain.
- New labor/working social services.
The strategic execution document of Industry 4.0: where RAMI 4.0 is eligible
A second paper released in 2015 and includes the RAMI 4.0 model, industry 4.0 elements, and a study roadmapping for implementation. The “Umsetzungsstrategie,” a recommendation for the conceptual translation and implementation of Industry 4.0.
The RAMI 4.0 (3 dimensions)
Three dimensions describe the reference model RAMI 4.0 architecture:
- The first element consists of the stages of hierarchy.
- The second dimension includes the life cycle and stream of values.
- The third and last dimension includes the layers known as the RAMI (architecture).
The level of hierarchy
This component of the hierarchy includes 7 aggregation levels: 1) the connected environment, 2) the business, 3) work centers. 4) stations (or machinery), 5) control devices, 6) devices of the field (actuators and sensor), and 7) products.
Essential to note: while these levels are historically seen as “a genuine hierarchy” and portrayed as a pyramid. Industry 4.0 more describes as in an allusion of all aspects, including processes, facilities, goods, organizations, ecosystems, etc. There are just 6 tiers with the business at the top of the pyramid indicating Industry 3.0. While the linked world is much more technologically and business ally related, it should be stressed that because long before anyone even spoke about Industry 4.0. There is a larger company with its ecosystems.
Our papers on omnipresent communication and digital transformation. But with a different hierarchy in smart goods and intelligent factories, covered the heretical dimension a number of times as part of this interconnected environment.
It is also concerned with technology (with similar overall decentralization) (IT and particularly OT) as well as the ubiquity of participants’ interactions at the hierarchical level, which makes the product a part of the network.
The value stream dimension and life cycle
As defined by the word, the life cycle and value stream dimensions cover the different data mapping stages of RAMI 4.0 and the entire value chain, as well as the different processes (and stakeholders).
This is going to be further addressed later because it is relevant in the data segment, based on the preproduction product data model, starting with the concept and development (data on, among others, all the way across further stages downstream, including actual production and the various processes until the production object is the end of life and gets recycled or trashed). The idea: the earlier the knowledge is, the higher the value.
The architectural layer
The third dimension, the layers of architecture, consists of six components: company, operating, information, communication, inclusion, and asset.
Essentially, we are talking about 1) the business processes of the organization; 2) the asset functions; 3) the data requested; 4) the correspondence in the form of knowledge access; 5) the incorporation of the company into the digital world, and 6) the movement of real assets as physical objects.
Combine all three dimensions and you have 3D service-oriented architecture over and above a good picture.
Principles of Industrie 4.0: vertical integration and horizontal
After this RAMI 4.0, as reported in the 2015 paper with Industry 4.0 guidelines and implementation strategies, let us consider a few other concepts for Industry 4.0.
This was set out in the 2013 study on, amongst other items, these principles, and Industry 4.0 working groups reported their results. Recall that, as we’ve discussed and will cover more extensively these guidelines, principles and so on is primarily about manufacture. But Industry 4.0 de facto goes beyond its principles, vision, and elements – and will continue to do this since Industry 4.0 moves from vision to practice to counter the imminent transformation of the other industries as they are already engaging.
Despite the fact, the goal is the same: ecosystem-wide data across different systems and all processes, using data transfer standards and providing the basis for an integrated supply and value chain.
New Business Models in Industry 4.0 and The automation pyramid
As previously mentioned, Industry 4.0’s prospects reach well beyond automation, higher performance, etc. As Industry 4.0 people say, the real opportunities are to find and introduce new business models.
Industry 4.0 has real opportunities to recognize and incorporate new business models.
Although that’s easier said than done (for many companies achieving certain levels and targets. It’s definitely one of the reasons why they’re mostly centered. As you can read in the article about industrial transformation). It’s the real objective: new data-based market modeling, new ecosystems, and new ways of serving clients satisfy demands.
The aspirational objectives of industrial processing primarily concern the service dimension of the so-called automation pyramid.
Reference from IoT World
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